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Classification and application of CNC tools (cnc machining)

Jan 11,21

Classification and application of CNC tools (cnc machining)
  1. Tool classification

Cutting tools are often divided into turning tools, hole processing tools, milling tools, broaches, thread cutting tools, gear cutting tools, automatic lines and CNC machine tools and reamers according to the processing methods and specific uses.
Tools can also be classified in other ways,
For example, according to the materials used, they are divided into high speed steel tools, cemented carbide tools, ceramic tools, cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools and diamond tools;
According to the structure, it can be divided into integral tool, insert tool, clamping tool and composite tool;
According to whether it is standardized, it can be divided into standard tools and non-standard tools
  1. Introduction of common cutting tools

1 turning tool

Turning tool is the most widely used tool in metal cutting without signature. It can be used to machine outer circle, end plane, thread and inner hole on lathe, as well as to cut groove and cut off. Turning tools can be divided into integral turning tools, welding assembly turning tools and mechanical clamping tools. Turning tools with mechanically clamped blades can be divided into machine tool turning tools and indexable turning tools. The cutting performance of mechanical clamping turning tool is stable, workers do not have to sharpen the tool, so it is applied more and more in modern production.
2-hole machining tool
Generally speaking, there are two kinds of tools for hole machining
One is the tool for machining holes from solid materials, such as twist drill, center drill and deep hole drill;
The other is the tool that reprocesses the existing hole on the workpiece, such as reamer, reamer and boring tool.

3 milling cutter

Milling cutter is a kind of widely used multi edge rotary cutter, which has many kinds. According to the use, there are:
1) For machining plane, such as cylindrical plane milling cutter, end milling cutter, etc;
2) For machining groove, such as end mill, T-shaped cutter and angle mill, etc;
3) For machining formed surface, such as convex semicircle and concave semicircle milling cutter and milling cutter for machining other complex formed surface. The productivity of milling is generally high, and the surface roughness value is large.

4 broach

Broach is a kind of multi tooth tool with high machining accuracy and cutting efficiency. It is widely used in mass production and can process various inner and outer surfaces. Broaches can be divided into internal Broaches and external broaches according to the surface of the workpiece. When machining with broach, in addition to selecting the rake angle and rake angle of the cutter teeth according to the material of the workpiece, and determining the broach size according to the size of the machined surface of the workpiece (such as the diameter of the circular hole), two parameters need to be determined

(1) The angle of tooth rise AF [i.e. the difference between the radius or height of the front and rear cutter teeth (or tooth group)];

(2) Pitch P [the axial distance between two adjacent cutter teeth].

5 thread cutter

Thread can be processed by cutting and rolling.

6 gear cutter

Gear cutter is a kind of cutter used for machining gear tooth profile. According to the working principle of cutting tools, gears are divided into forming gear tools and generating gear tools. The commonly used forming gear cutters include disc gear milling cutter and finger gear cutter. The commonly used generating gear cutters include gear shaper cutter, gear hob cutter and gear shaving cutter. When selecting gear hob and gear shaper cutter, the following points should be paid attention to:

(1) The basic parameters of the cutter (module, tooth profile angle, addendum height coefficient, etc.) should be the same as those of the gear to be machined.

(2) The accuracy grade of the cutting tool should be equal to that of the gear to be machined.

(3) The tool rotation direction should be the same as that of the machined gear as far as possible. When hobbing spur gears, the left-hand gear cutter is generally used.
7 automatic line and NC machine tool
Generally speaking, the cutting part of this kind of cutting tool is not much different from the general cutting tool, but in order to adapt to the characteristics of CNC machine tools and automatic line machining, it puts forward higher requirements for them.
CNC tool has formed three systems: turning tool system, drilling tool system and boring and milling tool system.